California Agriculture, May-June 1993
Volume 47, Number 3
Rice industry simmers: market challenges, resource constraints
peer-reviewed research articles
California's rice crop: market challenges, resource constraints
by Elmer W. Learn
California's rice industry faces numerous challenges as it strives to meet competitive pressures in the coming decade. In addition to traditional demand considerations—population and income growth, and changing consumer tastes—competitiveness will be affected by future trade regulations and price support policies. On the supply side, adjustments to current and potential environmental regulations affecting the use of land and water are likely to be of greatest importance to California producers.
Native Americans in California surveyed on diets, nutrition needs
by Joanne Ikeda , Sharon Dugan , Nancy Feldman , Rita Mitchell
Investigation of the diets of Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region identified eating habits that contributed to their well-being as well as habits that were potentially detrimental. The main problem: economics. With little money and no access to major grocery chains, many families cannot buy the kind of food that supports an adequate diet; others are unaware of government programs that can help them.
Sycamore scale treatments most effective at bud break
by Pavel Svihra , C. F. Fouche , C. S. Koehler
Bud break, not a calendar date, is the best time to protect sycamore trees against the sycamore scale, Stomacoccus platani, with insecticidal sprays. It is at bud break that the highest density of crawlers appears on twigs.
Codling moth, navel orangeworm studies show knowing location of pests in walnuts should help disrupt mating, egg laying
by G. Steven Sibbett , Donald L. Flaherty , Kathleen M. Kelley , Richard E. Rice , John E. Dibble
In flight, codling moths prefer upper tree strata, whereas navel orangeworm oviposition is more evenly distributed throughout the tree. Pest monitoring and pheromone placement for mating disruption should recognize the vertical distribution of these insects in walnut trees.
In outdoor planters in commercial centers… Insect-parasitic nematodes are effective against black vine weevil
by Tom M. Burlando , Harry K. Kaya , Patricia Timper
Insect-parasitic nematodes suppressed black vine weevil larvae in planters containing ivy vines at a commercial building. After 1 year, weevil numbers were lower in containers treated with nematodes either with or without an added alternate host.
Uniformity in pressurized irrigation systems depends on design, installation
by Gordon E. Little , David J. Hills , Blaine R. Hanson
Of 258 irrigation systems evaluated by mobile field laboratories in five Southern California resource conservation districts, average uniformity in distribution of water was relatively low. Generally, farms larger than 100 acres had systems with higher uniformity in distribution. Age of a system did not necessarily account for poor distribution. What did account for it was variation in pressures due to inadequate system design or to installation of incorrect hardware.
Crop response to sewage sludge compost: a preliminary report
by Robert F. Bevacqua , Valerie J. Mellano
Municipal sewage sludge, amended with Eucalyptus tree trimmings and composted, is being evaluated in San Diego as a soil amendment for field and greenhouse plantings of onion, snapdragon, turf and spinach. So far, increases in yields have been significant. In greenhouse studies comparing compost containing Eucalyptus trimmings with heat-dried sludge, results show both materials equally beneficial to crop growth. The presence of Eucalyptus did not decrease yields.
Cupric-oxide needles effective as oral copper supplement in cattle
by John R. Dunbar , James G. Morris , Ben B. Norman , A. J. Jenkins , Charles B. Wilson , John M. Connor
Increasing copper levels in 120 growing beef heifers, ages 6 to 9 months, was attempted with copper injections and with oral administration of cupric-oxide needles. The weaned Hereford heifers were randomly allocated to three groups, including one with no supplementation. Study results indicate that oral administration of copper-wire particles was effective, cheap, safe and convenient in preventing or treating copper deficiency. Such a deficiency can retard growth in cattle.
Almond hulls in swine diet reduce body fat
by Josep M. Homedes , Eugeni Roura , Nancy L. Keim , Dan L. Brown
Nine Duroc and thirteen crossbred (Hampshire x Yorkshire) growingfinishing barrows were fed two different diets: a typical corn/soybean basal diet and a diet consisting 85% of the basal diet plus 15% of almond hulls. Body composition was obtained by measuring total body electrical conductivity before and after the feeding trial. The upshot: Pigs fed the almond hulls ended up with 16% less body fat. The results raise questions: Should almond hulls be used to improve carcass grade—particularly where maximum rates of gain are less important than carcass quality? Also, can almond hulls be useful in gestation diets and for breeding stock?
From dried beet pulp to rice hulls: Rumen digestion of various dairy feedstuffs compared in tests
by Thomas A. Shultz , Carol A. Collar , Donald L. Bath , Abbas Ahmadi
From California's agricultural and livestock industries come a wide variety of possible ingredients for dairy feeding. Relatively limited information exists on the rumen's degradation of these feeds. In tests, disappearance of feedstuffs from suspended dacron bags in the rumen indicates apparent rumen digestibility. Data on observations of both common and relatively new feeds are presented here.
editorial, news, letters & science briefs
UC research and education: engines of economic growth
by Kenneth R. Farrell